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2. 2 Sports Injuries and Sports Damage

2.2.1 Acute sports injuries and first aid

Sporting activity causes an increased frequency of injuries, especially among inexperienced people. In general, these are minor injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Some of the typical sports injuries (muscle strains, dislocations) can be avoided by warming up the muscles. Intensive physical activity (games, athletics, weightlifting, gymnastics) must therefore be preceded by a warm-up.
1) Abrasions with usually little bleeding, often contaminated.

First aid:

Sterile drape, often requiring immobilization.

2) Bruises on soft tissues and bones (shoulder muscles, ribs, thighs, shins) due to blunt force impact, frequent result: bruising.

First aid:

Bandage under moderate compression (elastic bandage), cooling (cold water, diluted alcohol); Immobilization in the case of severe bruising, otherwise allow the joint to be moved while relieving the strain.

3) Sprains and dislocations (distortions) of joints (finger, hand, knee, ankle), often associated with joint effusion.
First aid:
Bandage the joint under moderate compression (elastic bandage), cooling (cold water, diluted alcohol); If the effusion is severe, keep it immobile, otherwise allow it to continue to move while relieving the joint.

4) Ligament strains in joints, mostly in connection with sprains, often with soft tissue and/or joint effusion (knee, ankle).

First aid:

Bandage the joint under moderate compression (elastic bandage), cooling (cold water, diluted alcohol).

Severe ligament strains almost always require immobilization for 1 to 3 days.

5) Torn ligaments, mainly in the case of severe distortions or dislocations (luxations) in the area of ​​the finger, knee and ankle joints, predominantly severe effusion, functional ability of the joint lost.

First aid:

Immobilization and splints, compressing bandage, cooling, transport for medical treatment.

6) Muscle strains, possibly with deep bruises (shoulder, thigh, calf muscles).
First aid:

Bandage under moderate compression (elastic bandage), cooling (cold water, diluted alcohol). Immobilization for severe bruising.

7) Muscle tears as tears of muscle fibres or complete muscle tears (shoulder, thigh, calf muscles).

First aid:

Immobilization with relaxed muscle, compressing bandage, cooling, transport to medical treatment.

8) Tendon tears with mostly only minor effusion formation, complete loss of muscle function (extensor vision, Achilles tendon).

First aid:

Immobilization with relaxed muscle, compressing bandage, cooling, transport to medical treatment.

2.2.2 Remedial Actions Not to Be Taken

When it comes to sports injuries, the following should be observed:

(1) If the severity of the injury is unclear, the more serious injury is to be assumed first, and the first aid measures are to be based on that.
(2) Massages on fresh injuries of the type mentioned above are prohibited.
(3) Circulation-promoting ointments are not to be used in the fresh stage of injury, as the increased blood flow increases the formation of effusions. Their application is appropriate no earlier than 12 hours after the injury.

2.2.3 Sports damage to the musculoskeletal system

In addition to acute sports injuries, chronic sports damage is another health problem, not only for competitive athletes, but also for those who are not very experienced.
Some typical examples are:

1.) Overload damage to the lower leg with

Periosteal irritation on the middle edges of the shin-bone Inflammation in the area of ​​the Achilles tendon from running training on hard track (asphalt road). To be avoided by training on soft ground and correct running technique (rolling off the foot).

2.) Knee joint problems (loose ligaments, meniscus damage), possibly with X-ray visible joint changes. These complaints are particularly common in soccer and handball players.
3.) Spinal complaints, mostly in the lumbar spine region after dumbbell training or weightlifting in the inexperienced as a result of incorrect technique.
4.) Spinal changes, mostly in the lumbar region in gymnasts and weightlifters. However, these changes rarely occur with the corresponding complaints, since the supporting effect of the pronounced back muscles brings about a certain amount of compensation.

5.) Joint changes in the fingers on the thumb or other finger base joints (middle finger), especially in boxers, often as a result of inadequate bandaging,
at the middle joints of the fingers in ball players (handball, volleyball, basketball).

2.2.4 Apparent and real damage to the cardiovascular system

A healthy cardiovascular system cannot be damaged by physical training. The fatigue of the skeletal muscles during sport far precedes the overstraining of the heart with the possibility of organic damage, so that in healthy people the work is stopped due to exhaustion of the muscles long before the heart could be damaged.

A poorly trained cardiovascular system with the resulting poor performance should by no means be a reason to get rid of sports. However, building up training that is initially adapted to the lack of performance is the only way to achieve normal physical resilience.

Dizziness or states of collapse after intense physical activity (middle and long-distance running) are more likely to cause injury from a fall than a real danger in and of themselves. They usually occur as a result of the rapidly falling blood pressure after stress due to a lack of blood and thus a lack of oxygen supply to the brain. To avoid such incidents, athletes should definitely keep moving after intense exertion.
In the event of a collapse, the shock positioning (head down, legs up) should be carried out. A subsequent medical examination must always take place.

However, the possibility of real damage to the heart from sports is present in the following cases:

1.) In the case of congenital or acquired heart valve defects or other anatomical changes in the cardiovascular system that put increased strain on a part of the heart,
2.) in the case of constriction of the coronary arteries with reduced oxygen supply to the heart muscle under stress conditions,
3.) in the case of increased blood pressure, which already exceeds the Increased stress on the heart muscle,
4.) in all inflammatory diseases of the organism (febrile infections, tonsillitis!) during and after the illness (1 to 2 weeks). In this case, a doctor should decide.